The course to modular construction is becoming more and more popular. New developments in this field are constantly appearing. The object of the study are modular energy-efficient building enclosure structures with the aerogel-based thermal insulation materials. The analysis of available developments and technological solutions in the field of modular facade systems. The features of aerogel and composite materials on its basis were considered. Due to numerous studies and developments, these materials are becoming more accessible and applicable in different areas, including the construction industry. As a result of the analysis, it was found that the construction of modular structures is perspective. Modular building envelopes in combination with aerogel-based thermal insulation materials help to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and structures, as well as help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.