The article abstract performs an important representative function in all information bases and is an independent source of information. The abstract purpose is to give the reader an idea of ​​the article content without reading the full text.

Abstracts should be:

  • uncluttered (do not contain excessive parenthesis);
  • informative (to reflect the main content of the article and the results of research);
  • structured (follow the structure of the article).

The text of the abstract should be brief and clear, free of background information, superfluous introductory words, general and insignificant formulations.

The abstract should have the same structure as the text of the article and contain 1–2 sentences for each clause

  • description of the research object;
  • formulation of motivation;
  • research method (briefly);
  • results of the study (it is recommended to indicate the specific results and dependencies obtained in the study);
  • conclusions (briefly).

The text must be coherent, the statements should be logical from one another.

In abstract is not recommended to:

  • use complex grammatical constructions;
  • use non-standard or uncommon abbreviations (if essential, abbreviations must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself);
  • use links to sources;
  • use formulas and illustrations;
  • leave out the research results in order to intrigue the reader.