Sand is often produced simultaneously with oil, and gas, which causes a significant issue in the petroleum industry. Therefore, sand production in gas and oil extraction needs to be studied thoroughly as it can cause many problems. Three problems arise among all: reducing pressure, pipe obstruction, and erosion. The second is a complicated, impersonal process in which material is eliminated from the pipe by the replicated effect of sand particles. Consequently, the pipe undergoes an erosion process. Erosion in pipes can lead to failures in pipelines, economic damage, and environmental problems. Hence, it is crucial to identify the parameters which determine erosion events as well as modeling them. This article provides an overview of the essential factors causing erosion and an explanation of the current erosion equations. It also describes experimental, and mechanical models of pipe erosion prediction. Moreover, it explains the modeling of fluid erosion dynamics as a comprehensive fragmentation study method. Ultimately, potential limits and shortcomings regarding erosion are demonstrated.